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4.1 Intro
Type Name Definition
P Production time = Running time

Something is coming out of the equipment, regardless of the amount, speed or quality.A machine, spinning at top speed, not generating output therefore is not running….Caution; batch producing equipment (like cookers, brick-ovens) are considered to run during their batch processing time.

F Failure time =Breakdown time

The machine is not having output due to a machine related technical problem.

I Idle time =Waiting time

The machine is not producing output because it has to wait for something (like a setup, or raw material)Therefore, waiting for a technician during a breakdown is not Failure time but Idle time!

L Line restraint time

The equipment can not generate output because it gets no input from the line, or can not give its output to the lineApplicable to equipment with a technical link to the line (pipe, conveyor)

- Unscheduled

The equipment is scheduled out of the total operations time for reasons beyond the scope of the production team.

  Not Scheduled

Time where there are no operations-activities going on at all. ‘The factory is closed, the lights are out’.

A machine is running when there is output, regardless of the quantity or quality.

4.2 Groups and types of Time usages

 

4.2.1 Production time
No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
1 Production 5 P F I L -
 
  • Plating
  • Stamping
  • Assembly
  • Filling
  • Moulding
  • Drilling
  • Refining
  • Baking

‘Something is coming out of the machine’ regardless the speed and its quality.

In batch producing equipment:

From the start of the batch processing time until the end of the processing time. While loading or unloading the equipment, the product is not being processed thus the equipment is NOT running!

2 Reworking 3 P F I L -
 
  • Re-filling
  • Re-pressing
  • Remanufacture

The equipment is running, (re-)processing product that was not produced first time right.

Although this is normal production time in terms of OEE, in some cases it is useful to split the different types of production runs to make them visible in the pareto of time-usage.

3 Reduces Speed Run 3 P F I L -
 
  • Running ½ die
  • Reduced Setup Tact

The equipment is running at reduced speed; the equipment output is deliberately slowed down to balance a line or to execute an inline setup.

Although this is normal production time in terms of OEE, in some cases it is useful to split the different types of production runs to make them visible in the pareto of time-usage.

4.2.2 Failure time
No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
10 Failure [function x] 10 P F I L -
 
  • Failure filler
  • Failure Capper
  • Failure depalletiser

A failure (=breakdown) prevents production due to a technical reason in the machine. The categories should be chosen process oriented and should describe the phenomenon, not the cause.

Choosing functional categories (like Electric, Mechanical, Pneumatic) is not supporting the cross-functional production team efforts.

11 (Re)Adjustment 2 P F I L -
 
  • Adjustment
  • Re-calibration

The machine is stopped WHILE A BATCH RUNS because adjustment is needed, to keep/get a product in spec. It is seen as a failure because at a certain point the equipment is no longer capable of producing the right spec due to a technical malfunction that needs to be corrected. The process is not capable of a stable operation.

Adjustment and calibration after setup belong to startup.

Time categories should be PROCESS related rather than FUNCTION related

4.2.3 Idle time

If two or more time-usages occur at the same time, the primary reason for stopping is being registered

No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
20 Setup 5 P F I L -
 
  • Product change
  • Setup
  • Quality Change

A setup in terms of OEE lasts from the last product A until the first product B, regardless its quality. (remind, this is different from the SMED definition: Last GOOD product until first GOOD product!)

Depending the situation it might be useful to precede or succeed the setup time by a shutdown and startup category, to make visible in a pareto where the main losses of setup are to be eliminated.

21 Startup/Shutdown 2 P F I L -
 
  • Heat up
  • Start after stop
  • Run-in
  • Checking machine
  • Preparation
  • Pressurise
  • Pump dry
  • Empty out
  • Clear out
  • Rinse out
  • Cool down
  • Calibration

The machine is not producing due to the fact it has no vertical startup or shutdown. This can occur at beginning or ending of shift but also before or after a setup or repair works. This time is defined separately from the main reason to shut down the machine.

Cleaning belongs here if it is part of the startup or shutdown activity, including startup of a new product (process-cleaning).

22 No Operator at machine 5 P F I L -
 
  • Break
  • Meeting
  • Training
  • Help at other machine
  • ‘Washing hands’

The machine is available, but is not running because the operator is not operating it for example during his break, a training or a meeting. Just like Preventive Maintenance, this time needs to have a balance between doing enough but not too much.

23 Quality problems - Process disturbance 2 P F I L -
 
  • Stopped because output is out of spec

The machine can not run because the process can not meet up with the specifications for (at that moment) unknown reasons.

If the reason is known (i.e. bad raw material), it should be registered as such (Bad raw material = Waiting for correct material).

24 Refill/Replace 3 P F I L -
 
  • Blade change
  • Refill ink cartridge
  • Oil Refill

The machine is stopped while refilling or replacing auxiliary, e.g. cutting blades, coolants, ink, oil, etc.

25 Loading 3 P F I L -
 
  • Load labels
  • Load boxes
  • Load Raw material

The machine is stopped while refilling/loading raw material, e.g. packaging materials, foils, and other raw materials.

26 Handling 2 P F I L -
 
  • Truck (un)loading
  • Forklift driving
  • Container change

The machine is waiting while needed material is being handled.

This is a more specific situation from the ‘Waiting’ block.

27 Waiting 7 P F I L -
 
  • Waiting on Tooling
  • Waiting on Engineering
  • Waiting on Maintenance
  • Waiting on Inspection
  • Looking for Gauge
  • No/Bad Packaging
  • No/Bad Raw material

The machine is not running because, for example, the correct raw material or a tool is not present at the moment it is needed, or an action can not be performed.

In this block we find reasons for idling that are caused by a weak planning. In the block ‘No Resources and No Personnel’ the reasons are ‘Force Majeure’.

 
  • No operator Available

It might occur we forgot to schedule or replace an operator.

28 Autonomous Maintenance & Cleaning 3 P F I L -
 
  • Shift Maintenance
  • Daily Cleaning

The main reason why the machine was stopped was due to AM activities, including cleaning. If a machine is cleaned in the time it was standing due to another reason (ie waiting for raw material) the real reason why the machine is standing is being registered.

Process cleaning (like rinsing between two products) belongs to startup-shutdown.

29 Preventive Maintenanceduring Loading Time 2 P F I L -
 
  • Planned PM during Loading time

Scheduled time to perform PM.

 
  • Unplanned PM

The machine is stopped at a not scheduled moment to perform PM or…

The machine is stopped at a scheduled moment but exceeding the scheduled time to perform PM during a scheduled time.

PM happens ‘in process’; it is scheduled in the production sequence and needs to have a balance between enough and not too much. If well performed, the planned idling time will reduce the unplanned breakdown time.

4.2.4 Line restraint time
No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
50 No Input (in Line process) 5 P F I L -
 
  • Empty input buffer
  • No input due to pre-heater
  • No input due to depalletiser

The machine stands still due to no input from a preceding process that has a technical link, e.g. a conveyer.

In lines it can be useful to get an overview in the pareto to show what process decreases the effectiveness from this machine the most. In that case the time usage is split in two or more items like;

[no input due to process x].

51 No Output (in Line process) 5 P F I L -
 
  • Output buffer full
  • Stop at palletiser
  • Stop at tray packer
  • Conveyer blocked

The machine stands still due to the fact it can not get rid of its output; mostly due to a stop in a succeeding process that has a technical link, e.g. a conveyer.

Also see block [No Input].

Remark:

The Line Restraint categories are used to reveal unbalanced capacities and/or timing in line processes. A line can be thought of literally: several machines tied together with conveyors, pipes etc.

However, applying Lean-Principles, those categories can be very well used to detect un-balanced situations between machines not technically tied together, e.g. in a cell or between several departments.

It even might be used to detect flaws in the supply-chain.

The [L] category therefore can be seen as a strict [L]ine Restraint but also as a [L]ean or [L]ogistic restraint.

4.2.5 Unscheduled time

During the operations time, the equipment may be unscheduled because:

  • the product is not needed (over-capacity);
  • it is not allowed to run (due to Governmental regulations or contracts);
  • ‘Force Majeur’ (catastrophe’s outside of the company);
  • the equipment is ‘handed over’ to an other party (e.g. R&D).
No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
60 No Orders 3 P F I L -
 
  • No Orders
  • Over-capacity
  • PM during No Orders
  • Cleaning during No Orders

The machine is not required to run due to a lack of customer orders; the capacity is not needed.

(customer = the one who pays for the product!)

Beware! A warehouse will never be ‘the customer’!

Do not hide over-production!

61 No Personnel Available 1 P F I L -
 
  • No Personnel
  • Strike

The machine is not scheduled for production because there is no operator present due to ‘force majeure’ like

  • Strikes
  • Massive influenza
  • Poor availability of workforce in the region.

If there is no operator available due to a lack of planning (so the machine was supposed to run), choose ‘no operator at machine’ or ‘wait for operator’ (both [I]dle).

62 No Resources 2 P F I L -
 
  • River Frozen
  • Energy Contract
  • Boycott

The machine is not scheduled for production because a resource is not available due to reasons OUTSIDE of the company, including energy; thus reasons other then lack of planning or handling (in such cases: Waiting).

63 Test Production 1 P F I L -
 
  • R&D
  • Test Run

The machine is not scheduled for production to make it available for product development, testing new products or processes etc.

4.2.6 Idle Time registered as Unscheduled Time!

Activities that normally would have been performed during loading time, can sometimes be scheduled outside loading time. In a two-shift operation, the machine might be setup or cleaned during the night or in the weekend, in absence of the regular crew. Preventive Maintenance could be carried out at a moment no production was scheduled. In a 3 shift operation from Monday to Friday, the PM could be scheduled in the weekend, thus not affecting the loading time.

In this way OEE may be increased by using non-loading time for activities that normally would affect loading time.

Doing so has some serious disadvantages:

  • The activity is necessary to perform the scheduled production thus can not be skipped: This means the OEE is artificially high. When Loading Time needs to be extended (e.g. more capacity is needed) and 2 shift becomes 3 shift, or 3 becomes 5 shift, those activities automatically will fall into the loading time, thus dropping the OEE!
  • Usually, outside the loading time, there is no pressure to get the machine up and running; this might result in a less effective performance of the activity scheduled outside of the loading time.

It is advised to register ALL machine related activities, necessary to perform the operation, WITHIN the loading time, regardless of the normal shift-time. Thus PM on Saturday would be Idle time and decreases the OEE!

However, if you choose not to do so, make sure to register ALL the time the machine is being touched or activated outside normal loading time. In this way the potential loss can be identified and made visible.

No Time Usage Max. recommended Time Type
70 Preventive Maintenance outside Loading Time 2 P F I L -
 
  • Planned PM Outside Loading Time
  • (Annual) Overhaul

PM necessary to maintain a high availability of the equipment, being performed outside of the normal Loading Time. In a 3 shift operation from Monday to Friday, the PM could be scheduled in the weekend, thus not affecting the regular loading time.

Overhaul is a specific form of preventive maintenance. If the machine is unscheduled for a longer period of time to be completely overhauled, it should be considered [PM during loading time] thus (I)dle. Only if the overhaul is performed at a moment the equipment would anyway not be running (e.g. because the facility is closed) it belongs in this block. If it is done in a period where there are no orders, [No Orders] is the reason for stopping the machine, and not the overhaul. Thus [No Orders] is registered! To identify PM during No Orders, make a separate category: [PM during No Orders].

 
  • Unplanned PM Outside Loading Time

PM outside loading time can take longer than originally planned; this can be made visible here.

If PM in Loading Time takes more time than planned and is being continued outside Loading Time it becomes [Unplanned PM Outside Loading Time].

71 Activities performed outsideLoading Time 3 P F I L -
 
  • Cleaning Outside Loading Time
  • Setup Outside Loading Time
  • Loading Outside Loading Time

Activities that normally would have been performed during loading time, performed outside loading time. In a two-shift operation, the machine might be setup or cleaned during the night or in the weekend, in absence of the regular crew.

Maximum Time categories per machine +/- 20; All categories should fit on one side of the OEE registration form!